A new approach to intraoperative radiotherapy makes use of a mobile electron linear accelerator delivering therapeutic radiation doses in an operating room suite. This unconventional technology has raised questions concerning protection for personnel and the necessity of shielding the adjoining areas. In this study, the leakage and scatter radiation from the mobile electron accelerator is measured and characterized in a series of spherical projections. An analysis is performed to determine the need for shielding or, alternatively, patient-based load restrictions in the operating room. This investigation provides a resource to assess shielding and/or patient load restrictions for any facility performing intraoperative radiotherapy with a similar unit. The data presented indicates that the mobile electron accelerator may be operated in an area with little or no shielding under nominal patient load expectations.