In plant cells, the pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) complex that requires lipoic acid as an essential coenzyme is located in plastids and mitochondria. The enzyme complex has to be lipoylated in both organelles. However, the lipoyltransferase located in plastids has not been reported. In this study, an Arabidopsis thaliana LIP2p cDNA for a lipoyltransferase located in plastids has been identified. We have shown that this cDNA encodes a lipoyltransferase by demonstrating its ability to complement an Escherichia coli mutant lacking lipoyltransferase activity, and that LIP2p is targeted into chloroplasts. These findings suggest that LIP2p is located in plastids and responsible for lipoylation of the plastidial PDH complex.