Using in vitro import assays into purified mitochondria and chloroplasts we found that Arabidopsis ferrochelatase-I and ferrochelatase-II were not imported into mitochondria purified from Arabidopsis (or several other plants) but were imported into pea leaf chloroplasts. Other dual targeted proteins could be imported into purified mitochondria from Arabidopsis. As only two ferrochelatase genes are present in the completed Arabidopsis genome, the presence of ferrochelatase activity in plant mitochondria needs to be re-evaluated. Previous reports of Arabidopsis ferrochelatase-I import into pea mitochondria are due to the fact that pea leaf (and root) mitochondria appear to import a variety, but not all chloroplast proteins. Thus pea mitochondria are not a suitable system to either study dual targeting, or to distinguish between isozymes present in mitochondria and chloroplasts.