Distinct effects of mitogens and the actin cytoskeleton on CREB and pocket protein phosphorylation control the extent and timing of cyclin A promoter activity

Mol Cell Biol. 2001 Nov;21(22):7607-16. doi: 10.1128/MCB.21.22.7607-7616.2001.


Soluble mitogens and adhesion-dependent organization of the actin cytoskeleton are required for cells to enter S phase in fibroblasts. The induction of cyclin A is also required for S-phase entry, and we now report that distinct effects of mitogens and the actin cytoskeleton on the phosphorylation of CREB and pocket proteins regulate the extent and timing of cyclin A promoter activity, respectively. First, we show that CREB phosphorylation and binding to the cyclic AMP response element (CRE) determines the extent, but not the timing, of cyclin A promoter activity. Second, we show that pocket protein inactivation regulates the timing, but not the extent, of cyclin A promoter activity. CREB phosphorylation and CRE occupancy are regulated by soluble mitogens alone, while the phosphorylation of pocket proteins requires both mitogens and the organized actin cytoskeleton. Mechanistically, cytoskeletal integrity controls pocket protein phosphorylation by allowing for sustained ERK signaling and, thereby, the expression of cyclin D1. Our results lead to a model of cyclin A gene regulation in which mitogens play a permissive role by stimulating early G(1)-phase phosphorylation of CREB and a distinct regulatory role by cooperating with the organized actin cytoskeleton to regulate the duration of ERK signaling, the expression of cyclin D1, and the timing of pocket protein phosphorylation.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • 3T3 Cells
  • Actins / metabolism*
  • Animals
  • Cell Line
  • Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein / metabolism*
  • Cyclin A / genetics*
  • Cytochalasin D / pharmacology*
  • Cytoskeleton / metabolism*
  • Cytoskeleton / physiology
  • Gene Expression Regulation / drug effects
  • Humans
  • MAP Kinase Signaling System
  • Mice
  • Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 1 / metabolism
  • Mitogens / pharmacology*
  • Nuclear Proteins / metabolism*
  • Phosphorylation
  • Promoter Regions, Genetic*
  • Retinoblastoma Protein / metabolism*
  • Retinoblastoma-Like Protein p107
  • Time Factors
  • Transcription, Genetic


  • Actins
  • Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein
  • Cyclin A
  • Mitogens
  • Nuclear Proteins
  • Rbl1 protein, mouse
  • Retinoblastoma Protein
  • Retinoblastoma-Like Protein p107
  • Cytochalasin D
  • Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 1