Aims: To determine the effects of acute hyperglycaemia on appetite and food intake in Type 1 diabetes mellitus.
Methods: Two separate studies, each involving eight adults with uncomplicated Type 1 diabetes, were performed: one in the fasted state (A) and the other after a nutrient preload (B). In both studies, perceptions of appetite (hunger and fullness) and food intake at a buffet meal were evaluated during euglycaemia (blood glucose, approximately 6 mmol/l) and hyperglycaemia (blood glucose, approximately 14 mmol/l). Both experiments were randomized and single-blind. In study A, appetite was assessed in the fasted state for 90 min before the buffet meal. In study B, a nutrient 'preload' of Ensure and milk containing 13C-octanoic acid was consumed 90 min before the meal. Gastric emptying of the preload was quantified with a radioisotopic breath test technique.
Results: There was no significant difference in plasma insulin concentrations between euglycaemia and hyperglycaemia in either study. In study A, there were no differences in hunger, fullness or energy intake between the two treatment days. In study B, subjects were slightly less hungry between the preload and buffet meal during hyperglycaemia than euglycaemia (P = 0.04), and tended to have slower gastric emptying during hyperglycaemia (emptying coefficient, 3.89 +/- 0.16 vs. 3.57 +/- 0.21; P = 0.052), but there was no difference in food intake between hyperglycaemia and euglycaemia.
Conclusions: Acute hyperglycaemia suppresses hunger after a nutrient preload, but not in the fasted state, in patients with uncomplicated Type 1 diabetes. This effect is small and not associated with changes in food intake.