Amylin is a 37-amino acid peptide hormone that is co-secreted with insulin by pancreatic beta cells in response to feeding. We recently reported that amylin potently reduces food intake, body weight, and adiposity when delivered into the 3rd cerebral ventricle (i3vt) of rats. We have now infused i3vt a specific antagonist (AC187) to ascertain the physiological relevance of central amylin in the control of energy balance. After establishing the ability of i3vt AC187 to block the anorexic effect of i3vt amylin, we performed an experiment to examine the impact of acute inhibition of central amylin signaling on feeding. Separate groups (n = 7/group) of ad lib-fed male Long Evans rats were given one bolus i3vt infusion of synthetic cerebrospinal fluid vehicle (CSF) or AC187 (250 or 1000 pmol). Acute infusion of AC187 tended to increase 1-h food intake and significantly elevated 4-h intake. Both the 250 and 1000 pmol doses produced significant increases as compared to CSF. In another experiment designed to tonically inhibit central amylin signaling over an extended period, two other groups of rats (n = 6/group) received continuous i3vt infusion of CSF or 100 pmol/h AC187 over 14 days via implantable osmotic pumps. Rats receiving AC187 ate significantly more food over the 14-day infusion period relative to controls (CSF = 322 +/- 6 g, AC187 = 360 +/- 12 g). Although body weight was not significantly affected, body fat was increased by about 30% in the AC187 rats, with no difference in lean tissue between the groups. Additionally, although fasting plasma glucose did not differ between the CSF and AC187 groups after 14 days of infusion, plasma insulin was significantly elevated in the AC187 rats. In summary, the present results document significant increases of food intake and body adiposity resulting from inhibition of central amylin signaling. They are consistent with our hypothesis that CNS actions of endogenous amylin contribute to the long-term regulation of energy balance.