Background & aims: Interleukin (IL)-1 gene cluster proinflammatory polymorphisms have been associated with development of gastric atrophy and with increased risk of gastric carcinoma. We aimed to determine the association between IL-1 loci polymorphisms and increased risk of gastric carcinoma in samples from a Portuguese population, and to find whether there was any relationship with the histologic types of gastric carcinoma.
Methods: In a case-control study including 220 controls and 152 patients with gastric carcinoma (intestinal, 76; diffuse, 37; and atypical, 39), both the IL-1B-511 biallelic polymorphism and the IL-1RN penta-allelic variable number of tandem repeats were genotyped.
Results: We found a significant association between the IL-1 polymorphisms and increased risk for tumor development in patients with intestinal-type gastric carcinoma. A trend towards an increased risk of tumor development was also observed in patients with diffuse-type gastric carcinoma. No significant relationship was observed in patients with atypical carcinoma. Carriers of IL-1B-511T and IL-1RN*2 homozygotes had increased risk for developing intestinal-type gastric carcinoma with odds ratios of 2.7 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.5-4.9) and 3.1 (95% CI, 1.5-6.5), respectively. Statistical analysis showed an interaction between the 2 loci with the risk conferred by the IL-1B-511T allele substantially increased (odds ratio, 9.0; 95% CI, 3.5-23.0) in individuals homozygous for the IL-1RN*2 allele.
Conclusions: Our results provide further support to the association between IL-1 gene cluster proinflammatory polymorphisms and increased risk of gastric carcinoma. Furthermore, we found evidence pointing to the existence of a synergistic interaction between the IL-1B and IL-1RN polymorphisms.