Mutation of p53 is a poor prognostic indicator of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Although poor histologic differentiation of HCC has been associated with p53 mutations, the exact reasons for unfavorable clinical outcomes in patients with HCC remain to be clarified. In this study, we evaluate the association between p53 mutation and histopathologic features of HCCs, as well as tumor recurrences and survival. We examined 20 HCCs and surrounding liver tissues from patients who underwent surgical resection, and we performed direct sequencing of p53 gene. p53 mutations were found in 9 of 20 HCCs; none were found in the surrounding liver tissue. p53 mutations were frequent in large, multinodular, and poorly differentiated HCCs. Five of 9 with p53 mutation (in contrast, none of 11 with wild-type mutation) showed microvascular invasions. Hepatocellular carcinoma recurred in 6 of 9 with p53 mutation, in contrast to only 2 of 11 with wild-type mutation. The 1-year survival rate with p53 mutation was significantly lower than that with wild-type. In conclusion, it is suggested that p53 mutations tend to be commonly associated with microvascular invasions, which may result in micrometastasis, followed by frequent recurrences.