Severe nasal clefting and abnormal embryonic apoptosis in Alx3/Alx4 double mutant mice

Development. 2001 Oct;128(20):3975-86. doi: 10.1242/dev.128.20.3975.


A group of mouse aristaless-related genes has been implicated in functions in the development of the craniofacial skeleton. We have generated an Alx3 mutant allele in which the lacZ coding sequence is inserted in-frame in the Alx3 gene and the sequences encoding the conserved protein domains are deleted. Mice homozygous for this null allele are indistinguishable from wild-type mice. Compound mutants of Alx3 and Alx4, however, show severe craniofacial abnormalities that are absent in Alx4 single mutants. Alx3/Alx4 double mutant newborn mice have cleft nasal regions. Most facial bones and many other neural crest derived skull elements are malformed, truncated or even absent. The craniofacial defects in Alx3/Alx4 double mutant embryos become anatomically manifest around embryonic day 10.5, when the nasal processes appear to be abnormally positioned. This most probably leads to a failure of the medial nasal processes to fuse in the facial midline and subsequently to the split face phenotype. We detected a significant increase in apoptosis localised in the outgrowing frontonasal process in embryonic day 10.0 double mutant embryos, which we propose to be the underlying cause of the subsequent malformations.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Apoptosis
  • Craniofacial Abnormalities / embryology
  • Craniofacial Abnormalities / genetics
  • DNA-Binding Proteins / genetics
  • DNA-Binding Proteins / physiology
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental
  • Gestational Age
  • Homeodomain Proteins / genetics*
  • Homeodomain Proteins / physiology
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred C57BL
  • Mice, Knockout
  • Mice, Mutant Strains
  • Nasal Bone / abnormalities*
  • Nasal Bone / embryology
  • Phenotype
  • Proteins / genetics*
  • Proteins / physiology
  • Transcription Factors*


  • ALX1 protein, human
  • ALX3 protein, human
  • ALX4 protein, human
  • Alx1 protein, mouse
  • Alx3 protein, mouse
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Homeodomain Proteins
  • Proteins
  • Transcription Factors