The genetic status of cagA, vacA subtype, iceA1, and babA, and the relationship to gastroduodenal diseases were assessed in Helicobacter pylori isolates in Korea. Seventy-six strains of H. pylori were isolated from the antrum and the corpus of 41 adult patients (22 with peptic ulcer and 19 with gastritis). The cagA, iceA1, and babA genes were assessed by polymerase chain reaction and the vacA subtypes were determined by reverse hybridization-line probe assay. The positive rates of 349-bp cagA, 208-bp cagA, iceA1, and babA genes were 97.4%, 96.1%, 84.2%, and 36.1%, respectively. The vacA s1a, s1b, s1c, and s2 variants were detected in 11.8%, 3.9%, 80.4%, and 1.3%, respectively. m1 (78.9%) is more prevalent than m2 (5.3%). The most common vacA genotype was s1c/m1 (61.9%), and 14 isolates (18.4%) contained mixed vacA genotypes from a single biopsy specimen. Twenty-one (60%) of 35 patients were infected with more than two strains of different cagA, iceA1, babA, and vacA genotypes. None of cagA, iceA1, babA, and vacA s1/m1 were associated with peptic ulcer. In conclusion, most H. pylori isolates in Korea carry cagA, iceA1, and vacA s1c/m1 genes, and reside with multiple strains. These genes do not correlate with the peptic ulcer in the Korean patients.