Lysyl oxidases: a novel multifunctional amine oxidase family

Prog Nucleic Acid Res Mol Biol. 2001;70:1-32. doi: 10.1016/s0079-6603(01)70012-8.


Lysyl oxidase (LOX), a copper-containing amine oxidase, belongs to a heterogeneous family of enzymes that oxidize primary amine substrates to reactive aldehydes. LOX has been traditionally known for one function, the extracellular catalysis of lysine-derived cross-links in fibrillar collagens and elastin. More recently, diverse roles have been attributed to lysyl oxidase and these novel activities cover a spectrum of diverse biological functions such as developmental regulation, tumor suppression, cell motility, and cellular senescence. Lysyl oxidase has also been shown to have both intracellular and intranuclear locations. The multifunctional properties of lysyl oxidase (LOX) and our recent discovery of three novel members of this amine oxidase family, LOX-like (LOXL), LOXL2, and LOXL3, indicate the possibility that these varied functions are performed in both intracellular and extracellular environments by individual novel members of the LOX amine-oxidase family. Structural similarities of the highly conserved copper-binding and lysyl-tyrosylquinone cofactor sites among the LOX and LOX-like proteins may result in similar amine oxidase activities. However, specific novel functions, such as a potential role in cell adhesion and cell growth control, will be determined by other, conserved domains such as the cytokine receptor-like domain that is shared by all LOXs and by multiple scavenger receptor cysteine-rich (SRCR) domains present in LOXL2 and LOXL3. Furthermore, these functions may be carried out in a temporally and spatially regulated fashion.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Animals
  • Chromosome Mapping
  • Evolution, Molecular
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic
  • Humans
  • Protein Conformation
  • Protein-Lysine 6-Oxidase / chemistry
  • Protein-Lysine 6-Oxidase / genetics
  • Protein-Lysine 6-Oxidase / metabolism*
  • Sequence Homology, Amino Acid


  • Protein-Lysine 6-Oxidase