The effects of red bull energy drink on human performance and mood

Amino Acids. 2001;21(2):139-50. doi: 10.1007/s007260170021.


The effects of Red Bull Energy Drink, which includes taurine, glucuronolactone, and caffeine amongst the ingredients, were examined over 3 studies in a total of 36 volunteers. Assessments included psychomotor performance (reaction time, concentration, memory), subjective alertness and physical endurance. When compared with control drinks, Red Bull Energy Drink significantly (P < 0.05) improved aerobic endurance (maintaining 65-75% max. heart rate) and anaerobic performance (maintaining max. speed) on cycle ergometers. Significant improvements in mental performance included choice reaction time, concentration (number cancellation) and memory (immediate recall), which reflected increased subjective alertness. These consistent and wide ranging improvements in performance are interpreted as reflecting the effects of the combination of ingredients.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Randomized Controlled Trial

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Affect / drug effects*
  • Attention / drug effects
  • Beverages*
  • Blood Pressure / drug effects
  • Caffeine / pharmacology*
  • Central Nervous System Stimulants / pharmacology
  • Dietary Supplements
  • Double-Blind Method
  • Female
  • Glucuronates / pharmacology*
  • Heart Rate / drug effects
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Memory / drug effects
  • Mental Processes / drug effects*
  • Physical Endurance / drug effects*
  • Psychomotor Performance
  • Task Performance and Analysis
  • Taurine / pharmacology*


  • Central Nervous System Stimulants
  • Glucuronates
  • Taurine
  • glucuronolactone
  • Caffeine