Racial and ethnic differences in access to medical care in managed care plans

Health Serv Res. 2001 Oct;36(5):853-68.


Objective: To examine the extent to which access differences between racial/ethnic minorities and whites in managed care plans are greater than such differences in other types of health plans.

Data source: A nationally representative sample of 4,811 African American, 3,379 Hispanic, and 33,737 white nonelderly persons with public or private health insurance.

Study design/data collection: A cross-sectional survey of households was conducted during 1996 and 1997. Commonly used measures of access to and utilization of medical care were constructed for individuals: (1) percentage of visits with a usual provider, (2) percentage with a regular provider, (3) visit with a physician in the past year, (4) hospital ER use, (5) last visit was to a specialist.

Principal findings: Fewer than 74 percent of Hispanics and African Americans had a regular provider compared to more than 78 percent of white Americans. Hispanics were least likely to have had their last doctor visit with a specialist (22 percent) compared to African Americans (26 percent) and whites (28 percent). Differences between ethnic/racial minorities and whites in managed care plans are similar to differences observed in non-managed care plans. Americans of all racial and ethnic backgrounds in managed care plans with gatekeeping are more likely to have a usual source of care, a regular provider, and lower use of specialists compared to persons in plans without gatekeeping.

Conclusion: Although greater access to primary care was shown among African Americans and Hispanics in managed care plans, the extent of the disparities between racial/ethnic minorities and whites in managed care is similar to disparities in other types of health plans.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Black or African American / statistics & numerical data*
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Gatekeeping
  • Health Services Accessibility / statistics & numerical data*
  • Health Services Research
  • Hispanic or Latino / statistics & numerical data*
  • Humans
  • Insurance Selection Bias
  • Managed Care Programs / organization & administration
  • Managed Care Programs / statistics & numerical data*
  • Medicine
  • Primary Health Care / statistics & numerical data
  • Referral and Consultation / statistics & numerical data
  • Socioeconomic Factors
  • Specialization
  • United States
  • Utilization Review
  • White People / statistics & numerical data*