Inhibition of Cholesterol Efflux by 7-ketocholesterol: Comparison Between Cells, Plasma Membrane Vesicles, and Liposomes as Cholesterol Donors

Biochemistry. 2001 Oct 30;40(43):13002-14. doi: 10.1021/bi010833h.


Cholesterol removal from lipid-loaded macrophages is an important, potentially antiatherogenic process, and we have previously shown that an oxysterol, 7-ketocholesterol (7K), can impair efflux to lipid-free apoprotein A-1 (apoA-1). This publication investigates whether incorporation of 7K into membranes could account for this impairment of cholesterol efflux. Cholesterol efflux was studied from lipoprotein-loaded THP-1 cells, from plasma membrane vesicles obtained from these cells, and from artificial, protein-free liposomes. Impairment of cholesterol efflux by 7K was observed for all cholesterol donor systems whether measured as decline in cholesterol removal rates or as the percentage mass of total cellular cholesterol exported. 7-Ketocholesterol itself was not removed by apoA-1 from any of the cholesterol donor systems. Increasing membrane cholesterol content increased the rate of cholesterol removal by apoA-1 (as seen with plasma membrane vesicles), the quantity of cholesterol removed at equilibrium (liposomes), or both (whole cells). Although the minimum inhibitory 7K concentrations varied between the cholesterol donor systems, 7K inhibited cholesterol efflux in all systems. It was concluded that 7K induces alteration in membranes which decreased the efficiency of cholesterol efflux and the quantity of removed cholesterol induced by apoA-1. As cell membrane proteins are not essential for cholesterol efflux in these systems, the impairment of such by 7K suggests that its effect on membrane lipid composition and its structure are key regulatory elements in this efflux process.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Biological Transport
  • Cell Line
  • Cell Membrane / metabolism*
  • Cholesterol / metabolism*
  • Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  • Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel
  • Foam Cells / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Ketocholesterols / pharmacology*
  • Kinetics
  • Lipid Bilayers / metabolism
  • Liposomes / metabolism*
  • Macrophages / metabolism
  • Models, Chemical
  • Protein Binding
  • Sterols / metabolism
  • Subcellular Fractions
  • Time Factors


  • Ketocholesterols
  • Lipid Bilayers
  • Liposomes
  • Sterols
  • Cholesterol
  • 7-ketocholesterol