To examine risk factors for anergy, delayed-type hypersensitivity was assessed among 884 infants participating in a vaccine trial in Guinea-Bissau. The infants were skin-tested at 7.5 months of age with a panel of seven intradermal antigens. Risk factors for anergy to tuberculin or anergy to both the diphtheria and tetanus antigens were determined in relation to Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination, diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) vaccination, and measles vaccination. We found sick children to be more anergic to tuberculin and diphtheria-tetanus antigens than healthy children (OR=2.49 (95% confidence interval 1.40-4.55)). There was a higher prevalence of anergy to tuberculin in the rainy season than in the dry season (OR=1.67 (1.25-2.23)). Children who had taken antimalarials within the last week had a higher prevalence of anergy to tuberculin (OR=1.41 (1.02-1.92)). BCG vaccination was significantly associated with less anergy to tuberculin and diphtheria-tetanus antigens (OR=0.42 (0.28-0.63), OR=0.77 (0.60-0.99), respectively). Children vaccinated with BCG before 1 month of age were more anergic to tuberculin than children vaccinated after 1 month (OR=1.61 (1.19-2.19)). DTP vaccination was associated with less anergy to diphtheria-tetanus antigens (OR=0.40 (0.32-0.49)), but not to tuberculin. Children with a positive reaction to tuberculin were less likely to be anergic to diphtheria-tetanus antigens (OR=0.36 (0.26-0.49)) than children with a negative tuberculin reaction. Children who were vaccinated with BCG before they received their last DTP vaccine were less anergic to diphtheria-tetanus antigens (OR=0.40 (0.16-0.88)) than other DTP-vaccinated children. In conclusion, current disease, rainy season, age below 1 month of age at the time of BCG vaccination, and administration of chloroquine or quinimax within the last 7 days were risk factors for anergy to tuberculin among 7.5-month-old infants. BCG vaccination and a positive tuberculin reaction were associated with a lower prevalence of anergy to both tuberculin and diphtheria-tetanus. Thus, BCG vaccination may contribute to better cell-mediated immune responses among infants.