In a double-blinded, randomized trial, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected adults with > or = 200 CD4 cells/microl received placebo (PL), 7-valent conjugate, or 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide (PS) vaccine in one of the following two-dose combinations given 8 weeks apart: conjugate-conjugate, conjugate-polysaccharide, placebo-polysaccharide, placebo-placebo. A total of 67 persons completed the study. Neither significant increases in HIV viral load nor severe adverse reactions occurred in any group. After controlling for confounders, when compared with persons receiving placebo-polysaccharide, persons receiving conjugate-conjugate and conjugate-polysaccharide had higher antibody concentrations (serotypes 4, 6B, 9V and serotype 23F, respectively) and opsonophagocytic titers (functional antibody assay, serotypes 9V, 23F and serotypes 4, 6B, 9V, respectively) after the second dose (P<0.05). The second dose with either conjugate or polysaccharide following the first conjugate dose, however, produced no further increase in immune responses.