To clarify the prevalence of open-angle glaucoma (OAG) and its relationship to refraction among a Japanese population with a broad range of ages including children and adolescents, an 1-year epidemiological survey was conducted. The subjects of this study were 64,394 asymptomatic individuals who had attended the glasses and contact lens center in Yokohama, Japan from February 15, 1999 to February 14, 2000 and had been subjected to several optical examinations. The results of this study showed that the overall prevalence of OAG was 1.19% (1.14% for men, and 0.98% for women). Prevalence for children aged 6 to 14 of both sexes was approximately 0.5%. There were significant positive associations between the strength (diopter) of myopic refraction and OAG prevalence among all the examined subjects.