Although left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is a common complication which contributes substantially to high cardiovascular mortality and morbidity in end-stage renal failure, whether changes in blood pressure and alterations of circadian variation of blood pressure occur between the hemodialysis (HD) day and the interdialytic day, and if so, whether they influence the left ventricular mass (LVM) remain unknown. Thirty-five consecutive stable patients who had had a hematocrit value greater than 25% for the previous 6 months, who had been on the same antihypertensive drugs during this period, and who underwent HD 3 times a week were included. Echocardiograms were recorded after HD and then ambulatory blood pressure monitoring was recorded every hour for 48 h. The mean interdialytic body weight gain was less than 5% of dry weight. Patients with LVH had a higher average systolic blood pressure (SBP) at predialysis, postdialysis, on the HD day and on the interdialytic day than those without LVH despite the higher antihypertensive therapy rate. The majority of patients with LVH showed concentric hypertrophy and higher plasma natriuretic peptide levels. Irrespective of the presence of LVH, the average blood pressure value did not change between the HD day and the interdialytic day, and a loss of circadian blood pressure variation was observed on both the HD and interdialytic days. Univariate analysis revealed that LVM was significantly correlated with the average SBP at predialysis, postdialysis, on the HD day, on the interdialytic day and over 48 h (r= 0.48, r=0.61, r=0.67, r=0.67, r=0.73, respectively; all p<0.05). Multiple regression analysis revealed that 48-h SBP was independently associated with the LVM index. These results suggest that neither the loss of circadian blood pressure variation nor the changes of blood pressure between the HD and interdialytic days was of major etiologic importance in the development of LVH, and that the absolute value of the 48-hour average SBP may be an important risk factor for concentric LVH in stable HD patients.