Cellular localization of the signaling components of Arabidopsis His-to-Asp phosphorelay

Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2001 Sep;65(9):2113-7. doi: 10.1271/bbb.65.2113.


In the higher plant, Arabidopsis thaliana, histidine-to-aspartate (His-to-Asp) phosphorelay signal transduction systems play crucial roles in propagation of environmental stimuli, including plant hormones. This plant has 11 sensor His-kinases, 5 histidine-containing phosphotransfer (HPt) factors (AHPs), and 20 response regulators (ARRs). To gain new insight into the functions of these phosphorelay components, their intracellular localization was examined with use of GFP-fusion proteins, constructed for certain representatives of HPt factors (AHP2) and type-A and type-B ARRs (ARR6/ARR7 and ARR10, respectively). The results showed that AHP2 is mainly located in the cytoplasmic space, while both the types of ARRs have an ability to enter preferentially into the nuclei, if not exclusively. Together with the results from an in vitro phosphorelay assay with AHP2 and ARRs, these results are discussed, in terms of a geneal framework of the Arabidopsis His-to-Asp phosphorelay network.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Arabidopsis / metabolism*
  • Arabidopsis Proteins / genetics
  • Arabidopsis Proteins / metabolism*
  • Aspartic Acid / metabolism*
  • Cell Nucleus / metabolism
  • Green Fluorescent Proteins
  • Histidine / metabolism*
  • Luminescent Proteins / genetics
  • Luminescent Proteins / metabolism
  • Molecular Biology / methods*
  • Nuclear Proteins / genetics
  • Nuclear Proteins / metabolism*
  • Phosphotransferases*
  • Plant Proteins / genetics
  • Plant Proteins / metabolism*
  • Recombinant Proteins / genetics
  • Recombinant Proteins / metabolism
  • Repressor Proteins / genetics
  • Repressor Proteins / metabolism*
  • Signal Transduction*


  • AHP2 protein, Arabidopsis
  • Arabidopsis Proteins
  • Luminescent Proteins
  • Nuclear Proteins
  • Plant Proteins
  • Recombinant Proteins
  • Repressor Proteins
  • Green Fluorescent Proteins
  • Aspartic Acid
  • Histidine
  • Phosphotransferases