A telephone survey was conducted to examine the use of manual hyperinflation (MHI) by physiotherapists in intensive care units (ICUs) in 32 Australian teaching hospitals. A 100 per cent response rate was obtained from senior ICU physiotherapists. Results showed that 91 per cent of respondents used manual hyperinflation as a physiotherapy treatment technique. There was strong agreement on the components of the technique, preferred treatment position, contraindications and perceived benefits but considerable variation in duration of treatment, number of breaths per set and circuits used. Fewer than 55 per cent stated that a maximum airways pressure of 40 cm H2O or less was used with MHI and only 31 per cent monitored airways pressure. These results are compared with previously published surveys.