Neopterin is a marker associated with cell-mediated immunity. It is produced in monocytes/macrophages primarily upon stimulation with interferon-gamma. Due to its chemical structure, neopterin belongs to the class of pteridines. It is excreted in an unchanged form via the kidneys. Serum levels above 10 nmol/L are regarded as elevated. The levels of neopterin in body fluids are elevated in infections, autoimmune diseases, malignancies, allograft rejection, cardiac and renal failure, coronary artery disease and myocardial infarction. Neopterin measurements not only provide an insight into the present state of cell-mediated immune response but also allow monitoring and prognosis of disease progression.