Sixty children, ages 7-17 years, who fulfilled Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; American Psychiatric Association, 1994) diagnosis for various specific phobias were randomized to (a) 1-session exposure treatment alone, (b) 1-session treatment with a parent present, or (c) wait-list control group for 4 weeks. After the waiting period, the wait-list patients were rerandomized to the active treatments. The patients' phobias were assessed with behavioral approach tests (approach behavior, experienced anxiety, and physiological reactions), whereas general anxiety, depression, phobic tendencies, and anxiety sensitivity were assessed with self-report inventories. Assessments were done pre-, post-, and 1-year following treatment. Results showed that both treatment conditions did significantly better than the control condition, whereas the treatment groups did equally well on most measures, and the effects were maintained at follow-up. The implications of these results are discussed.