The permanent teeth of 516 7- and 8-year-old Swedish children from a low-fluoride area were examined for developmental enamel defects. Special attention was paid to demarcated opacities in permanent first molars and permanent incisors (MIH). The examination was done in their schools, using a portable light, a mirror, and a probe. The modified DDE index of 1992 was used for recording the enamel defects, supplemented with a further classification into severe, moderate, and mild defects. Demarcated opacities in permanent first molars were present in 18.4% of the children. The mean number of hypomineralized teeth of the affected children was 3.2 (standard deviation, 1.8), of which 2.4 were first molars. Of the children 6.5% had severe defects, 5% had moderate defects, whereas 7% had only mildly hypomineralized teeth. In conclusion, hypomineralized first molars appeared to be common and require considerable treatment in the Swedish child population.