High-resolution two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of pulse-labeled Haemophilus influenzae extracts allows for the separation and quantification of more than five hundred protein spots. We have determined the changes in the protein synthesis patterns triggered by treatment with inhibitors of transcription, Rifampicin (Rif) and translation, Chloramphenicol (Chl), Erythromycin (Ery), Fusidate (Fus), Puromycin (Pur), Kanamycin (Kan), Streptomycin (Str), and Tetracycline (Tet) relative to the total protein synthesis rate. More than 200 spots changed in intensity under at least one condition. With the exception of the aminoglycosides, Kan and Str, all inhibitors triggered a clear increase in the synthesis rates of ribosomal proteins and RNA polymerase subunits. Northern analysis of rpoA, rpoB, rpoC, and six ribosomal protein genes indicated induction of transcription as well as antitermination as part of the mechanism of the regulation of gene expression. Total RNA synthesis was increased after exposure to Chl, Ery, Fus, and Tet, whereas Str had no effect. Rif led to an almost complete shutdown of RNA synthesis. Exposure to Chl, Ery, Fus, Rif, and Tet resulted in a decrease in the concentration of the stringent factor, guanosine 5',3'-bis-diphosphate (ppGpp) whereas Str again had no effect. Thus, as in Escherichia coli, the response of H. influenzae to translational inhibitors appears to be mediated by the regulatory nucleotide ppGpp.