Artificial viruses consisting of DNA plasmid packaged in vitro into virus-like particles (VLPs) are new vehicles for gene transfer. We therefore investigated the ability of nine human papillomavirus (HPV) VLPs to interact with heterologous DNA and transfer genes. HPV 16, 18, 31, 33, 39, 45, 58, 59, and 68 VLPs were able to bind heterologous DNA and to transfer genes into Cos-7 cells. Inhibition of gene transfer by preincubation of the pseudovirions with heparin confirmed that heparan sulfate on the cell surface plays a role as cell receptor for HPVs. As HPV neutralizing antibodies are mainly type-specific, gene transfer with different HPV pseudovirions offers the possibility of their sequential use in vivo for a greater efficacy.