Background: Helicobacter pylori eradication rates in France after therapy with omeprazole, amoxicillin and clarithromycin are among the lowest in Europe. This study evaluated alternative eradication regimens.
Methods: Helicobacter pylori-positive patients (n=323) with non-ulcer dyspepsia were randomized to receive one of four 1-week regimens consisting of omeprazole, 20 mg b.d., plus either: amoxicillin, 1000 mg b.d., and clarithromycin, 500 mg b.d. (OAC); bacampicillin, 1200 mg b.d., and clarithromycin, 500 mg b.d. (OBC); clarithromycin, 250 mg b.d., and metronidazole, 500 mg b.d. (OCM); or amoxicillin, 1000 mg b.d, and azithromycin, 500 mg on day 1 and 250 mg on days 2-5 (OAAz). Eradication was confirmed by urea breath test 4-6 weeks after treatment. Susceptibility testing was performed in the case of eradication failure.
Results: The eradication rate with OAAz was 38% (95% CI, 25.6-49.4) on intention-to-treat analysis, which was lower (P < 0.05) than with the other regimens [OCM, 61% (50.0-72.8); OBC, 65% (54.0-76.5); OAC, 72% (61.8-81.8)]. Of the strains isolated following treatment failure with OAC, OBC or OCM, 84% were clarithromycin resistant.
Conclusions: OAC remains the reference treatment for H. pylori eradication in France, although bacampicillin offers a useful alternative to amoxicillin. Susceptibility testing should be considered after unsuccessful eradication therapy.