Objective: To establish guidelines for the diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up of BPH.
Methods: A search of published work was conducted using Medline. In combination with expert opinions recommendations were made on the usefulness of tests for assessment and follow-up: mandatory, recommended, or optional. In addition, indications and outcomes for the different therapeutic options were reviewed.
Results: A digital rectal examination is mandatory in the assessment for the diagnosis of BPH. Recommended tests are the International Prostate Symptom Score, creatinine measurement (or renal ultrasound), uroflowmetry, and postvoid residual urine volume. All other tests are optional. The aim of treatment is to improve patients' quality of life, and it depends on the severity of the symptoms of BPH. The watchful waiting policy is recommended for patients with mild symptoms, medical treatment for patients with mild-moderate symptoms, and surgery for patients who failed medication or conservative management and who have moderate-severe symptoms, and/or complications of BPH which require surgery. Regarding non-surgical treatments, transurethral microwave thermotherapy is the most attractive option. These treatments should be reserved for patients who prefer to avoid surgery or who no longer respond favourably to medication. Finally, recommendations for follow-up tests and a recommended follow-up time schedule after BPH treatment are provided.
Conclusions: Recommendations for assessment, possible therapeutic options, and follow-up of patients with BPH are made.