Background: Diabetic patients are at increased risk for both macrovascular and microvascular disease compared with nondiabetic patients.
Methods: We conducted a prospective observational study to assess the control of multiple predetermined cardiovascular risk factors in 235 treated diabetic patients undergoing elective cardiac catheterization at our institution between December 20, 1997, and February 15, 2000. The following parameters were used to define optimal treatment in these patients: hemoglobin (Hgb) A1c <7%, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) <100 mg/dL, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) >/=45 mg/dL for men and >/=55 mg/dL for women, triglyceride (TG) level <200 mg/dL, blood pressure (BP) <130/85 mm Hg, body mass index (BMI) <25, daily aspirin therapy, and current nonsmoking status. The use of b-blockers and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors was also evaluated.
Results: The average patient age was 64 +/- 11 years; 155 (65%) were male. One hundred ninety-one (81%) patients had documented coronary artery disease at cardiac catheterization. The mean Hgb A1c level for all diabetic patients was 8.2% +/- 1.6%. Overall, 49 (21%) had an Hgb A1c level <7%. The fasting cholesterol panel for all patients revealed a mean LDL-c level of 103 +/- 41 mg/dL, a mean HDL level of 39 +/- 11 mg/dL, and a mean TG level of 164 +/- 128 mg/dL. One hundred sixteen (52%) patients had an LDL-c <100 mg/dL. Only 32 of 147 (22%) male patients and 14 of 80 (18%) female patients achieved an HDL-c >/=45 mg/dL or >/=55 mg/dL, respectively. One hundred seventy-seven of 232 (76%) patients had a TG level <200 mg/dL. Only 23 of 233 (10%) diabetics were controlled to a BP of <130/85 mm Hg, and 25 (11%) achieved a BMI <25. Only one patient (0.4%) had optimal control of all modifiable risk factors.
Conclusions: These data demonstrate the poor control of numerous cardiovascular risk factors in treated diabetics undergoing elective cardiac catheterization.