Cell cycle-independent expression of the Arabidopsis cytokinesis-specific syntaxin KNOLLE results in mistargeting to the plasma membrane and is not sufficient for cytokinesis

J Cell Sci. 2001 Aug;114(Pt 16):3001-12.


The Arabidopsis KNOLLE gene encodes a cytokinesis-specific syntaxin that localises to the plane of division and mediates cell-plate formation. KNOLLE mRNA and protein expression is tightly regulated during the cell cycle. To explore the significance of this regulation, we expressed KNOLLE protein under the control of two constitutive promoters, the flower-specific AP3 and the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter. The transgenic plants developed normally, although KNOLLE mRNA and protein accumulated to high levels in non-proliferating cells and protein was incorporated into membranes. Immunolocalisation studies in transgenic seedling roots revealed mistargeting of KNOLLE protein to the plasma membrane in tip-growing root hairs and in expanding root cells, whereas no mislocalisation was observed in proliferating cells. By comparative in situ hybridisation to embryo sections, the 35S promoter yielded, relative to the endogenous KNOLLE promoter, low levels of KNOLLE mRNA accumulation in proliferating cells that were insufficient to rescue cytokinesis-defective knolle mutant embryos. Our results suggest that in wild type, strong expression of KNOLLE protein during M phase is necessary to ensure efficient vesicle fusion during cytokinesis.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Arabidopsis / cytology*
  • Arabidopsis / genetics
  • Arabidopsis / metabolism*
  • Arabidopsis Proteins / genetics
  • Arabidopsis Proteins / metabolism
  • Cell Cycle*
  • Cell Division
  • Cell Membrane / metabolism*
  • Gene Expression
  • In Situ Hybridization
  • Membrane Proteins / genetics*
  • Membrane Proteins / metabolism*
  • Microscopy, Fluorescence
  • Mutation / genetics
  • Phenotype
  • Plant Roots / cytology
  • Plant Roots / genetics
  • Plant Roots / metabolism
  • Plants, Genetically Modified
  • Promoter Regions, Genetic / genetics
  • Protein Transport
  • Qa-SNARE Proteins
  • RNA, Messenger / genetics
  • RNA, Messenger / metabolism
  • Transgenes / genetics*


  • Arabidopsis Proteins
  • KNOLLE protein, Arabidopsis
  • Membrane Proteins
  • Qa-SNARE Proteins
  • RNA, Messenger