Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) infection is one of the major causes of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). X protein (HBx) has been suspected to be oncogenic, although the precise role(s) remain uncertain. HBx is a multifunctional viral regulator that modulates transcription, cell responses to genotoxic stress, protein degradation, and signaling pathways. These modulations affect viral replication and viral proliferation, directly or indirectly. HBx also affects cell cycle checkpoints, cell death, and carcinogenesis. This article presents an overview of the progress in HBx research over the past several years.