The gingival inflammatory infiltrate in cardiac patients treated with calcium antagonists

J Clin Periodontol. 2001 Oct;28(10):897-903. doi: 10.1034/j.1600-051x.2001.028010897.x.


Objectives: To analyse the periodontal inflammatory infiltrates in patients with cardiac disease, some of these patients were treated with calcium antagonists (nifedipine and diltiazem) and some were not, to compare them with a healthy control group, and to evaluate the changes in the inflammatory infiltrate after periodontal treatment.

Material and methods: A "healthy group" (HG, n=12), a "cardiac group" (CG, n=12) without treatment with calcium antagonists, a "nifedipine group" (NG, n=18) and a "diltiazem group" (DG, n=13) were analysed. Biopsies were taken from a zone 2-3 mm below the upper part of the interproximal papillae 12-13 and 33-32 before causal periodontal treatment and after 1 year. Using haematoxylin-eosin staining, the plasma cells (P), lymphocytes (L), histiocytes (H) and polymorphonuclear cells (PMN) were counted. T and B lymphocytes were evaluated using the monoclonal antibodies anti-CD20 and anti-CD45RO. Statistical tests used: chi2 for study of the sample composition; ANOVA for comparison between groups; Student t-test and Wilcoxon test for comparison between visits; post-hoc test Bonferroni.

Results: When the cells were compared statistically, differences were established for L at the first visit (p<0.00001) and at the last visit (p<0.02), for the B lymphocytes (first visit p<0.0021, last visit p<0.022) and for the T lymphocytes (first visit p<0.0042, last visit p<0.0021). Between the 2 visits, HG showed significant reductions for P (p<0.01), L (p<0.045) and H (p<0.033); and the NG for L (p<0.0001). Lymphocytes showed differences in the NG with respect to the B lymphocytes (p<0.008).

Conclusions: Nifedipine affects the inflammatory infiltrate with a greater number of lymphocytes (especially B) and these cells fell significantly in number after periodontal treatment.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Analysis of Variance
  • Calcium Channel Blockers / adverse effects*
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Chi-Square Distribution
  • Diltiazem / adverse effects
  • Female
  • Gingival Hyperplasia / chemically induced*
  • Gingival Hyperplasia / immunology
  • Gingivitis / immunology*
  • Gingivitis / therapy
  • Histiocytes / physiology
  • Humans
  • Immunoenzyme Techniques
  • Lymphocytes / physiology*
  • Male
  • Myocardial Ischemia / drug therapy
  • Myocardial Ischemia / immunology
  • Neutrophil Infiltration / drug effects*
  • Neutrophils / physiology
  • Nifedipine / adverse effects
  • Plasma Cells / physiology
  • Statistics, Nonparametric


  • Calcium Channel Blockers
  • Diltiazem
  • Nifedipine