Objective: The present study was performed to assess the effect of topically-applied PVP-iodine, used as an adjunct both during basic non-surgical therapy and at re-treatment during the long-term maintenance of patients with advanced periodontal disease.
Material and methods: 223 patients with advanced destructive periodontitis were recruited. The participants met the following inclusion criteria: (i) a minimum of 8 non-molar teeth, (ii) probing pocket depth of > or = 6 mm at > or = 2 teeth in each dentate quadrant, and radiographic bone loss exceeding 40% at the same teeth. A baseline I examination included assessment of plaque, gingivitis, probing pocket depth (PPD), probing attachment level (PAL) and radiographic bone height (RxBL). Following baseline I, the patients were stratified into 2 treatment groups; 2 subjects out of 3 were included in a control group and 1 in a test group. All participants, on an individual basis, received a case presentation and were instructed in proper self-performed plaque control measures. Non-surgical therapy was performed by the use of an ultrasonic device. The instrumentation in the test group was combined with the administration of 0.1% PVP-iodine. All subjects were recalled for comprehensive examinations 3, 6 and 12 months (baseline II) after baseline I and then after 3, 5 and 13 years of maintenance therapy. PAL determinations were performed annually. Subjects (losers) who at the re-examinations after 1, 2 and 3 years of maintenance demonstrated an annual further loss of PAL > or = 2 mm at > or = 4 teeth were exited from the study and referred for re-treatment. There were 9 losers in the test and 31 in the control group. In addition, 8 subjects in the test and 25 subjects in the control group withdrew from the trial for reasons unrelated to the study. These 73 subjects were not included in the data presentation from the various examinations.
Results: It was demonstrated that non-surgical periodontal therapy resulted in (i) improved gingival conditions, (ii) reduced PPD, (iii) gain in PAL. It was also documented that the topical application of 0.1% PVP-iodine in conjunction with the mechanical root debridement established conditions which further improved the outcome of therapy. This was evidenced by the fact that at the 3, 6, and 12 months re-examinations after baseline I, the test group had significantly lower mean PPD values and significantly more gain of PAL than the control group. During the 12 years of SPT, it was possible for most subjects in both groups to maintain shallow pockets and to avoid marked further loss of PAL. There were, however, a larger number of losers in the control than in the test group.
Conclusion: PVP-iodine, topically applied during subgingival instrumentation, may improve the outcome of non-surgical periodontal therapy.