Hoxa9 and Meis1a are homeodomain transcription factors that heterodimerize on DNA and are down-regulated during normal myeloid differentiation. Hoxa9 and Meis1a cooperate to induce acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in mice, and are coexpressed in human AML. Despite their cooperativity in leukemogenesis, we demonstrated previously that retroviral expression of Hoxa9 alone--in the absence of coexpressed retroviral Meis1 or of expression of endogenous Meis genes--blocks neutrophil and macrophage differentiation of primary myeloid progenitors cultured in granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF). Expression of Meis1 alone did not immortalize any factor-dependent marrow progenitor. Because HoxA9-immortalized progenitors still execute granulocytic differentiation in response to granulocyte CSF (G-CSF) and monocyte differentiation in response to macrophage CSF (M-CSF), we tested the possibility that Meis1a cooperates with Hoxa9 by blocking viable differentiation pathways unaffected by Hoxa9 alone. Here we report that Meis1a suppresses G-CSF-induced granulocytic differentiation of Hoxa9-immortalized progenitors, permitting indefinite self-renewal in G-CSF. Meis1a also reprograms Hoxa9-immortalized progenitors to proliferate, rather than die, in response to stem cell factor (SCF) alone. We propose that Meis1a and Hoxa9 are part of a molecular switch that regulates progenitor abundance by suppressing differentiation and maintaining self-renewal in response to different subsets of cytokines during myelopoiesis. The independent differentiation pathways targeted by Hoxa9 and Meis1a prompt a "cooperative differentiation arrest" hypothesis for a subset of leukemia, in which cooperating transcription factor oncoproteins block complementary subsets of differentiation pathways, establishing a more complete differentiation block in vivo.