Primary angiitis of the CNS (PACNS) is a rare inflammatory disease affecting middle-aged patients. The angiitis is focal and segmental in distribution, involving small and medium-sized leptomeningeal and intracranial vessels. The most frequent presenting symptoms are headaches, focal neurologic deficits, and confusion. In addition, aphasia, neuropsychological deficits, and seizures may occur. The paper presents a review of the literature. In addition, a typical case of PACNS is presented. This case demonstrates that diagnosis of PACNS is difficult and brain biopsy is essential to confirm it.