Nonantibibiotic measures for the prevention of Gram-positive infections

Clin Microbiol Infect. 2001:7 Suppl 4:91-9. doi: 10.1046/j.1469-0691.2001.00063.x.


While Gram-negative bacteria remain a leading cause of nosocomial infections such as ventilator-associated pneumonia and catheter-associated urinary tract infections, Gram-positive cocci are now responsible for a large majority of surgical site and bloodstream infections. A shift has occurred during the last decade and multidrug-resistant micro-organisms have become predominant in most referral centers. Severe infections with Gram-positive micro-organisms such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, coagulase-negative staphylococci, vancomycin-resistant enterococci, penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae and, more recently, glycopeptide intermediate S. aureus are now regularly reported to be associated with increased morbidity and represent a true health problem in many institutions. The importance of nonantimicrobial measures to prevent infections and further spread is reviewed in this paper. New evidence of the effectiveness of basic infection control measures that have been regarded of little importance during the last two decades by the exponential progress of technologically sophisticated medicine, is discussed.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Bacteremia / microbiology
  • Bacteremia / prevention & control
  • Catheterization, Central Venous / adverse effects
  • Cross Infection / microbiology
  • Cross Infection / prevention & control
  • Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections / microbiology
  • Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections / prevention & control*
  • Gram-Positive Cocci
  • Hand Disinfection
  • Humans
  • Infection Control / methods*