Toxicity of amiodarone and amiodarone analogues on isolated rat liver mitochondria

J Hepatol. 2001 Nov;35(5):628-36. doi: 10.1016/s0168-8278(01)00189-1.


Background: Amiodarone is a well-known mitochondrial toxin consisting of a benzofuran ring (ring A) coupled to a p-OH-benzene structure substituted with 2 iodines and a diethyl-ethanolamine side chain (ring B).

Aim: To find out which part of amiodarone is responsible for mitochondrial toxicity.

Methods: Amiodarone, ring A and B without the ethanolamine side-chain and iodines (B0), ring A and B with iodines but no ethanolamine (B2), ring B with 1 iodine and no ethanolamine (C1) and ring B with ethanolamine and 2 iodines (D2) were studied.

Results: In freshly isolated rat liver mitochondria, amiodarone inhibited state 3 glutamate and palmitoyl-CoA oxidation and decreased the respiratory control ratios. B0 and B2 were more potent inhibitors than amiodarone and B2 more potent than B0. C1 and D2 showed no significant mitochondrial toxicity. After disruption, mitochondrial oxidases and complexes of the electron transport chain were inhibited by amiodarone, B0 and B2, whereas C1 and D2 revealed no inhibition. Beta-oxidation showed a strong inhibition by amiodarone, B0 and B2 but not by C1 or D2. Ketogenesis was almost unaffected.

Conclusions: Amiodarone, B0 and B2 are uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation, and inhibit complexes I, II and III, and beta-oxidation. The benzofuran structure is responsible for mitochondrial toxicity of amiodarone and the presence of iodine is not essential.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Amiodarone / analogs & derivatives*
  • Amiodarone / chemistry
  • Amiodarone / toxicity*
  • Animals
  • Electron Transport / drug effects
  • Glutamic Acid / metabolism
  • Male
  • Mitochondria, Liver / drug effects*
  • Mitochondria, Liver / pathology
  • Oxidative Phosphorylation / drug effects
  • Oxygen Consumption / drug effects
  • Palmitoyl Coenzyme A / metabolism
  • Rats
  • Rats, Sprague-Dawley


  • Palmitoyl Coenzyme A
  • Glutamic Acid
  • Amiodarone