Organization, structure and evolution of the CYP2 gene cluster on human chromosome 19

Pharmacogenetics. 2001 Nov;11(8):687-98. doi: 10.1097/00008571-200111000-00007.


The cytochrome P450 superfamily of mixed-function oxygenases has been extensively studied due to its many critical metabolic roles, and also because it is a fascinating example of gene family evolution. The cluster of genes on human chromosome 19 from the CYP2A, 2B, and 2F subfamilies has been previously described as having a complex organization and many pseudogenes. We describe the discovery of genes from three more CYP2 subfamilies inside the cluster, and assemble a complete map of the region. We comprehensively review the organization, structure, and expression of genes from all six subfamilies. A general hypothesis for the evolution of this complex gene cluster is also presented.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Aryl Hydrocarbon Hydroxylases*
  • Chromosomes, Human, Pair 19 / genetics*
  • Cytochrome P-450 CYP2B6
  • Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System / chemistry*
  • Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System / genetics*
  • Cytochrome P450 Family 2
  • Evolution, Molecular*
  • Gene Order*
  • Humans
  • Multigene Family / genetics*
  • Oxidoreductases, N-Demethylating / chemistry
  • Oxidoreductases, N-Demethylating / genetics
  • Oxygenases / chemistry
  • Oxygenases / genetics
  • Steroid Hydroxylases / chemistry
  • Steroid Hydroxylases / genetics


  • Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System
  • Oxygenases
  • CYP2S1 protein, human
  • Steroid Hydroxylases
  • Cyp2f2 protein, mouse
  • Aryl Hydrocarbon Hydroxylases
  • CYP2B6 protein, human
  • CYP2F1 protein, human
  • Cytochrome P-450 CYP2B6
  • Cytochrome P450 Family 2
  • cytochrome P-450 CYP2F3 (goat)
  • steroid hormone 6-beta-hydroxylase
  • Oxidoreductases, N-Demethylating