Vitamin D control of osteoblast function and bone extracellular matrix mineralization

Crit Rev Eukaryot Gene Expr. 2001;11(1-3):199-226.

Abstract

Vitamin D is the major regulator of calcium homeostasis and protects the organism from calcium deficiency via effects on the intestine, kidney, parathyroid gland, and bone. Disturbances in the vitamin D endocrine system (e.g., vitamin D-dependent rickets type I and type II), result in profound effects on the mineralization of bone. Recent studies with vitamin D receptor knockout mice also show effects on bone. It is questioned whether vitamin D has a direct effect on bone formation and mineralization. In rickets and particular vitamin D receptor knockout mice, calcium supplementation restores bone mineralization. However, the vitamin D receptor is present in osteoblasts, and vitamin D affects the expression of various genes in osteoblasts. This review focuses on the role of vitamin D in the control of osteoblast function and discusses the current knowledge of the direct effects of vitamin D on mineralization. Moreover, the role of vitamin D metabolism and the mechanism of action of vitamin D and interaction with other hormones and factors are discussed.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Alkaline Phosphatase / physiology
  • Animals
  • Apoptosis
  • Bone Morphogenetic Proteins / physiology
  • Calcifediol / physiology
  • Calcification, Physiologic / drug effects
  • Calcification, Physiologic / physiology*
  • Calcitriol / pharmacology
  • Calcitriol / therapeutic use
  • Calcium-Binding Proteins / physiology
  • Cell Division
  • Cell Line / drug effects
  • Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System / physiology
  • Extracellular Matrix / drug effects
  • Extracellular Matrix / metabolism*
  • Extracellular Matrix Proteins*
  • Gene Expression Regulation / drug effects
  • Humans
  • Insulin-Like Growth Factor I / physiology
  • Integrin-Binding Sialoprotein
  • Mice
  • Mice, Knockout
  • Minerals / metabolism
  • Osteoblasts / drug effects
  • Osteoblasts / physiology*
  • Osteocalcin / physiology
  • Osteoclasts / metabolism
  • Osteonectin / physiology
  • Osteopontin
  • Osteoporosis / drug therapy
  • Plasminogen / physiology
  • Prostaglandins / physiology
  • Rats
  • Receptors, Calcitriol / deficiency
  • Receptors, Calcitriol / drug effects
  • Receptors, Calcitriol / genetics
  • Rickets / physiopathology
  • Sialoglycoproteins / physiology
  • Steroid Hydroxylases / physiology
  • Transforming Growth Factor beta / physiology
  • Vitamin D / pharmacology
  • Vitamin D / physiology*
  • Vitamin D / therapeutic use
  • Vitamin D Deficiency / physiopathology
  • Vitamin D3 24-Hydroxylase

Substances

  • Bone Morphogenetic Proteins
  • Calcium-Binding Proteins
  • Extracellular Matrix Proteins
  • IBSP protein, human
  • Ibsp protein, mouse
  • Ibsp protein, rat
  • Integrin-Binding Sialoprotein
  • Minerals
  • Osteonectin
  • Prostaglandins
  • Receptors, Calcitriol
  • SPP1 protein, human
  • Sialoglycoproteins
  • Spp1 protein, mouse
  • Spp1 protein, rat
  • Transforming Growth Factor beta
  • matrix Gla protein
  • Osteocalcin
  • Osteopontin
  • Vitamin D
  • Insulin-Like Growth Factor I
  • Plasminogen
  • Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System
  • Steroid Hydroxylases
  • Vitamin D3 24-Hydroxylase
  • Alkaline Phosphatase
  • Calcitriol
  • Calcifediol