The aseptic meningitis after Measles-Mumps-Rubella vaccine (MMR) is a well recognized complication, and different incidences have been observed in several studies. We retrospectively analyzed forty cases of aseptic meningitis, during a large public immunization campaign (1998) in Curitiba, Southern Brazil (590,609 people), admitted in our Service. The vaccine utilized was Leningrad-3-Zagreb mumps strain, Edmonston-Zagreb measles strain, and RA 27#3 rubella strain. In all county, a total number of 87 cases were reported, resulting in a incidence of 1.7 cases per 10,000 given doses. The mean age was 23.7 +/- 12.8 years. The female:male ratio was 1.35:1. Severe headache with meningismus (92.5%), fever (87.5%), nausea/vomiting (82.5%) were the most common clinical findings. Three cases (7.5%) developed mild mumps. All patients underwent cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) tap with the following findings: mononuclear pleocytosis from 100 to 500 cells/mm(3) in 17 cases (42.5%; 257.5 +/- 260.6 cells/mm3); increased protein 28 cases (67.5%; 92.1 +/- 76.9 mg/dL); glucose was normal in all cases (56.8 +/- 11.2 mg/dL) except in 4 (10%) cases, which presented less than 44 mg/dL. All serological tests (latex to bacterial meningitis, Cryptococcus, cysticercosis, VDRL) and bacteriological cultures were negative. Virus identification were also negative in 8 samples. None of the patients had neurological deficits or related symptoms after one year of onset. We believe the benefit of vaccination clearly outweighs the incidence of benign vaccine-associated meningitis.