Tyrosine nitration: localisation, quantification, consequences for protein function and signal transduction

Free Radic Res. 2001 Jun;34(6):541-81. doi: 10.1080/10715760100300471.


The nitration of free tyrosine or protein tyrosine residues generates 3-nitrotyrosine the detection of which has been utilised as a footprint for the in vivo formation of peroxynitrite and other reactive nitrogen species. The detection of 3-nitrotyrosine by analytical and immunological techniques has established that tyrosine nitration occurs under physiological conditions and levels increase in most disease states. This review provides an updated, comprehensive and detailed summary of the tissue, cellular and specific protein localisation of 3-nitrotyrosine and its quantification. The potential consequences of nitration to protein function and the pathogenesis of disease are also examined together with the possible effects of protein nitration on signal transduction pathways and on the metabolism of proteins.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Disease
  • Humans
  • Nitrates / metabolism*
  • Proteins / metabolism
  • Proteins / physiology*
  • Signal Transduction*
  • Tyrosine / analogs & derivatives*
  • Tyrosine / analysis
  • Tyrosine / metabolism*
  • Tyrosine / physiology


  • Nitrates
  • Proteins
  • 3-nitrotyrosine
  • Tyrosine