The authors examined mammography use according to family cancer history and identified predictors of recent use (<or=2 years). Framingham Offspring Study participants in Framingham, Massachusetts, aged 40-79 years, completed a breast health questionnaire in 1996-1997. The study sample of women included 141 with a first-degree relative with breast cancer, 221 with a mother or sister(s) with other cancers, and 331 with a mother and sister(s) who participate in the Framingham Heart Study and did not report a history of cancer. Stepwise logistic regression analysis was used to identify predictors of recent mammography use. Among women with a family breast cancer history, 98% reported mammography use compared with 95% of other women. Recent mammography use was higher in women with a family breast cancer history (93%) compared with women with a family history of other cancer (80%) and women without a family history of cancer (84%) (p = 0.004). Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for significant predictors of recent mammography use were as follows: family history of breast cancer, 3.2 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.4, 7.7); recent clinical breast examination, 17.4 (95% CI: 9.2, 32.8); and smoking, 0.4 (95% CI: 0.2, 0.7). Mammography use was high among women with a family breast cancer history.