Asynchronous replication and allelic exclusion in the immune system

Nature. 2001 Nov 8;414(6860):221-5. doi: 10.1038/35102606.


The development of mature B cells involves a series of molecular decisions which culminate in the expression of a single light-chain and heavy-chain antigen receptor on the cell surface. There are two alleles for each receptor locus, so the ultimate choice of one receptor type must involve a process of allelic exclusion. One way to do this is with a feedback mechanism that downregulates rearrangement after the generation of a productive receptor molecule, but recent work suggests that monoallelic epigenetic changes may also take place even before rearrangement. To better understand the basis for distinguishing between alleles, we have analysed DNA replication timing. Here we show that all of the B-cell-receptor loci (mu, kappa and lambda) and the TCRbeta locus replicate asynchronously. This pattern, which is established randomly in each cell early in development and maintained by cloning, represents an epigenetic mark for allelic exclusion, because it is almost always the early-replicating allele which is initially selected to undergo rearrangement in B cells. These results indicate that allelic exclusion in the immune system may be very similar to the process of X chromosome inactivation.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Alleles*
  • Animals
  • DNA Replication*
  • Dosage Compensation, Genetic
  • Female
  • Gene Rearrangement, B-Lymphocyte, Light Chain
  • Immune System / physiology*
  • Immunoglobulin kappa-Chains / genetics
  • In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence
  • Leukopoiesis
  • Male
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred BALB C
  • Mice, Inbred C57BL
  • Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell / genetics
  • S Phase


  • Immunoglobulin kappa-Chains
  • Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell