Not until 1973 was it reported that strains of Agrobacterium that cause crown gall disease of grape form a specific group (later characterized as Agrobacterium vitis). Tumorigenic and nontumorigenic A. vitis have since been isolated from infected and symptomless grapes worldwide. Research on the genetic makeup of A. vitis has led to an improved understanding of pathogen biology and bacterial evolution. In addition, the identification of significant gene sequences has facilitated the development of PCR and RFLP-based identification procedures that continue to improve the detection of A. vitis in plants and soil. Current control practices rely on the use of disease-resistant cultivars, cultural practices that minimize plant injury, and the production of pathogen-free vines. Promising future controls include employment of biological control agents and development of crown gall-resistant transgenic grapevines.