Modulation of blood fluke development in the liver by hepatic CD4+ lymphocytes

Science. 2001 Nov 9;294(5545):1358-61. doi: 10.1126/science.1064462.


We have identified an alternate developmental pathway in the life cycle of the trematode pathogen Schistosoma mansoni. This pathway is used in immunodeficient hosts in which the parasite fails to receive appropriate signals from the host immune system. Helminth development is altered at an early stage during infection, resulting in the appearance of attenuated forms that prolong survival of host and parasite. Hepatic CD4+ T lymphocyte populations are an integral component of the immune signal recognized by the parasite.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes / immunology*
  • Genes, MHC Class II
  • Liver / immunology
  • Liver / parasitology*
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred BALB C
  • Mice, Inbred C57BL
  • Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta / genetics
  • Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta / immunology
  • Schistosoma japonicum / anatomy & histology
  • Schistosoma japonicum / growth & development
  • Schistosoma mansoni / growth & development*
  • Schistosoma mansoni / immunology
  • Schistosomiasis mansoni / immunology*
  • Schistosomiasis mansoni / parasitology*
  • T-Lymphocyte Subsets / immunology
  • beta 2-Microglobulin / genetics
  • beta 2-Microglobulin / physiology


  • Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta
  • beta 2-Microglobulin