Satellite 2 methylation patterns in normal and ICF syndrome cells and association of hypomethylation with advanced replication

Hum Genet. 2001 Oct;109(4):452-62. doi: 10.1007/s004390100590.


Mutation in the DNMT3B DNA methyltransferase gene is a common cause of ICF (immunodeficiency, centromeric heterochromatin, facial anomalies) immunodeficiency syndrome and leads to hypomethylation of satellites 2 and 3 in pericentric heterochromatin. This hypomethylation is associated with centromeric decondensation and chromosomal rearrangements, suggesting that these satellite repeats have an important structural role. In addition, the satellite regions may have functional roles in modifying gene expression. The extent of satellite hypomethylation in ICF cells is unknown because methylation status has only been determined with restriction enzymes that cut infrequently at these loci. We have therefore developed a bisulfite conversion-based method to determine the detailed cytosine methylation patterns at satellite 2 sequences in a quantitative manner for normal and ICF samples. From our sequence analysis of unmodified DNA, the internal repeat region analyzed for methylation contains an average of 17 CpG sites. The average level of methylation in normal lymphoblasts and fibroblasts is 69% compared with 20% in such cells from ICF patients with DNMT3B mutations and 29% in normal sperm. Although the mean satellite 2 methylation values for these groups do not overlap, there is considerable overlap at the level of individual DNA strands. Our analysis has also revealed a pattern of methylation specificity, suggesting that some CpGs in the repeat are more prone to methylation than other sites. Variation in satellite 2 methylation among lymphoblasts from different ICF patients has prompted us to determine the frequency of cytogenetic abnormalities in these cells. Although our data suggest that some degree of hypomethylation is necessary for pericentromeric decondensation, factors other than DNA methylation appear to play a major role in this phenomenon. Another such factor may be altered replication timing because we have discovered that the hypomethylation of satellite 2 in ICF cultures is associated with advanced replication.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Base Sequence
  • Blotting, Southern
  • Cells, Cultured
  • Centromere / genetics
  • Centromere / metabolism
  • Cloning, Molecular
  • Consensus Sequence / genetics
  • Conserved Sequence
  • CpG Islands / genetics
  • Cricetinae
  • Cytosine / metabolism
  • DNA (Cytosine-5-)-Methyltransferases / genetics
  • DNA (Cytosine-5-)-Methyltransferases / metabolism*
  • DNA Methylation*
  • DNA Replication*
  • DNA, Satellite / metabolism*
  • Face / abnormalities
  • Female
  • Heterochromatin / genetics
  • Heterochromatin / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes / enzymology
  • Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes / genetics*
  • Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes / metabolism*
  • Male
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Sulfites / metabolism
  • Time Factors


  • DNA, Satellite
  • Heterochromatin
  • Sulfites
  • Cytosine
  • DNA (Cytosine-5-)-Methyltransferases
  • DNA methyltransferase 3B