1. The present review discusses the current evidence to implicate leucocytes as key players in the development of neointima in arteries that have been subjected to balloon angioplasty injury. 2. There is substantial clinical evidence that leucocytes are activated after angioplasty, as determined by increased plasma levels of both leucocyte granulation products and soluble leucocyte and endothelial cell adhesion molecules. 3. Experimental evidence to implicate leucocytes in neointimal formation comes from studies that demonstrate leucocyte accumulation occurs within the vascular wall soon after injury and that induction of leukopenia prevents neointimal formation. 4. The evidence implicating specific adhesion molecules and cytokines in the key events leading to neointimal formation is discussed.