Functional limitations in women at midlife: the role of health conditions, behavioral and environmental factors

Womens Health Issues. 2001 Nov-Dec;11(6):494-502. doi: 10.1016/s1049-3867(01)00089-5.


This study examined risk factors for functional limitations in a community-based sample of 16,065 women from 5 ethnic groups, aged 40-55 years, enrolled in the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation. Almost 20% of this sample reported physical-functioning limitations. Functional limitations were associated with numerous disease conditions, including high blood pressure, diabetes, heart attack or angina, arthritis, osteoporosis, and cancer, and with several behavioral and environmental risk factors, including body mass index, difficulty paying for basics, and high levels of perceived stress. Consistent with findings in older women, this study shows that in addition to health conditions, potentially modifiable risk factors including high body mass index, difficulty paying for basics, and high levels of stress are associated with physical-functioning limitations of women at midlife.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Activities of Daily Living / classification*
  • Adult
  • Body Mass Index
  • Chronic Disease / epidemiology*
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Ethnicity / statistics & numerical data
  • Female
  • Health Behavior
  • Health Surveys*
  • Humans
  • Middle Aged
  • Prevalence
  • Risk Factors
  • Socioeconomic Factors
  • United States / epidemiology
  • Women's Health*