Although genomewide scans have identified several potential chromosomal susceptibility regions in several human populations, finding a causative gene for type 2 diabetes has remained elusive. Others have reported a novel gene, calpain-10 (CAPN10), located in a previously identified region on chromosome 2q37.3, as a putative susceptibility gene for type 2 diabetes. Three single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (UCSNP43, UCSNP19, and UCSNP63) were shown to be involved in increased risk of the disease among Mexican Americans. We have tested the association of these three SNPs with type 2 diabetes among the Samoans of Polynesia, who have a very high prevalence of the disease. In the U.S. territory of American Samoa, prevalence is 25% and 15% in men and women, respectively, whereas, in the independent nation of Samoa, prevalence is 3% and 5% in men and women, respectively. In our study sample, which consisted of 172 unrelated affected case subjects and 96 control subjects, we failed to detect any association between case subjects and control subjects in allele frequencies, haplotype frequencies, or haplotype combinations of UCSNP43, -19, and -63. Also, our data showed no evidence of linkage, among 201 affected sib pairs, in the region of chromosome 2 that contains these SNPs. Three plausible scenarios could explain these observations. (1) CAPN10 is a susceptibility gene only in particular ethnic groups; (2) our study lacks power to detect the effects of CAPN10 polymorphisms (but our sample size is comparable to that of earlier reports); or (3) the underlying biological mechanism is too complex and requires further research.