Transient expression of phosphatidylserine at cell-cell contact areas is required for myotube formation

J Cell Sci. 2001 Oct;114(Pt 20):3631-42. doi: 10.1242/jcs.114.20.3631.


Cell surface exposure of phosphatidylserine (PS) is shown to be part of normal physiology of skeletal muscle development and to mediate myotube formation. A transient exposure of PS was observed on mouse embryonic myotubes at E13, at a stage of development when primary myotubes are formed. The study of this process in cell cultures of differentiating C2C12 and H9C2 myoblasts also reveals a transient expression of PS at the cell surface. This exposure of PS locates mainly at cell-cell contact areas and takes place at a stage when the structural organization of the sarcomeric protein titin is initiated, prior to actual fusion of individual myoblast into multinucleated myotubes. Myotube formation in vitro can be inhibited by the PS binding protein annexin V, in contrast to its mutant M1234, which lacks the ability to bind to PS. Although apoptotic myoblasts also expose PS, differentiating muscle cells show neither loss of mitochondrial membrane potential nor detectable levels of active caspase-3 protein. Moreover, myotube formation and exposure of PS cannot be blocked by the caspase inhibitor zVAD(OMe)-fmk. Our findings indicate that different mechanisms regulate PS exposure during apoptosis and muscle cell differentiation, and that surface exposed PS plays a crucial role in the process of myotube formation.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Annexin A5 / metabolism
  • Apoptosis
  • Cell Adhesion / physiology
  • Cell Differentiation
  • Cell Fusion*
  • Cell Line
  • Connectin
  • Enzyme Inhibitors / metabolism
  • Fluorescent Dyes / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Intercellular Junctions / chemistry
  • Intercellular Junctions / metabolism*
  • Membrane Proteins / metabolism
  • Mice
  • Microscopy, Fluorescence
  • Muscle Development*
  • Muscle Proteins / metabolism
  • Muscle, Skeletal / cytology*
  • Muscle, Skeletal / embryology*
  • Muscle, Skeletal / metabolism
  • Myocardium / cytology
  • Myocardium / metabolism
  • Phosphatidylserines / metabolism*
  • Protein Kinases / metabolism
  • Recombinant Proteins / metabolism


  • Annexin A5
  • Connectin
  • Enzyme Inhibitors
  • Fluorescent Dyes
  • Membrane Proteins
  • Muscle Proteins
  • Phosphatidylserines
  • Recombinant Proteins
  • TTN protein, human
  • Protein Kinases