Incidence of human immunodeficiency virus among male-to-female transgendered persons in San Francisco

J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2001 Dec 1;28(4):380-4. doi: 10.1097/00126334-200112010-00012.


Objective: To estimate HIV incidence among male-to-female transgendered persons (MtF transgendered persons) who repeatedly tested for HIV antibodies at public San Francisco counseling and testing sites between July 1997 and June 2000.

Methods: HIV seroconversions were identified and person-time of observation were estimated using the date and result of the current test and the self-reported date and result of the previous test. Factors independently associated with HIV seroconversion were determined using multivariable proportional hazard analysis.

Results: HIV incidence was 7.8 per 100 person-years (95% confidence intervals [CI], 4.6-12.3) based on 13 seroconversions among 155 repeat testers with 167.7 person-years of observation. African-American race/ethnicity (adjusted relative hazard ratio [HR], 5.0; 95% CI, 1.5-16.2) and unprotected receptive anal intercourse (HR, 3.9; 95% CI, 1.2-13.1) were independent predictors of HIV seroconversion.

Conclusions: HIV is currently spreading at an extremely high rate among MtF transgendered persons in San Francisco, especially those who are African Americans.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Cohort Studies
  • Female
  • HIV Antibodies / blood
  • HIV Infections / blood
  • HIV Infections / epidemiology*
  • HIV Infections / virology
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Multivariate Analysis
  • San Francisco / epidemiology
  • Transsexualism*


  • HIV Antibodies